Antioxidant Activity of Non-Volatile Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Extract

Nandang Permadi(1), Euis Julaeha(2), Yudi Rosandi(3), Mohamad Nurzaman(4*),

(1) Universitas Padjadjaran
(2) Universitas Padjadjaran
(3) Universitas Padjadjaran
(4) Universitas Padjadjaran
(*) Corresponding Author


The paper reports the antioxidant activity of a non-volatile fraction of lime processing byproducts from the lime syrup home industry. The activity was measured by spectrophotometry to obtain the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) using the 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The sample was extracted by the maceration method with n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, and ethyl-ethanol. The IC50 values of 681 ppm, 458 ppm, and 2,775 ppm were n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, and ethyl-ethanol. The experiments concluded that the ethyl-acetate extract provides the best inhibition value to scavenge free-radicals DPPH. The HPLC and mass spectroscopy were measured to find out the content and group of active compounds. The significant compounds consisted of naringin, poncirin, or neoponcirin, which are known as antioxidant substances. The result shows the potential application of the lime by-products, its volatile fraction, and the nonvolatile fraction, which is the production residue of lime peel. This work can be applied as an alternative to zero-waste lime production, which may benefit the industry and the environment.


antioxidant, Citrus aurantifolia, DPPH, zero-waste industry

Full Text:



Chen, X. M., Tait, A. R., & Kitts, D. D. (2017). Flavonoid composition of orange peel and its association with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Food Chemistry, 218, 15–21.

Loizzo, M. R., Tundis, R., Bonesi, M., Menichini, F., De Luca, D., Colica, C., & Menichini, F. (2012). Evaluation of Citrus aurantifolia peel and leaves extracts for their chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92(15), 2960–2967.

Maemulyati, A., & A. R. Prihadi. (2016). Chemical composition of essential oil and hexane extract and antioxidant activity of various extracts of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass flowers from Indonesia. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 50(4), 264–269.

Safdar, M. N., Kausar, T., Jabbar, S., Mumtaz, A., Ahad, K., & Saddozai, A. A. (2017). Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from kinnow (Citrus reticulate L.) peel using ultrasound and maceration techniques. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 25(3), 488–500.

Samira Lagha-Benamrouche, & Madania, K. (2013). Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of orange varieties (Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus aurantium L.) cultivated in Algeria: Peels and leaves. Industrial Crops and Products, 50, 723–730.

Shofinita, D., Feng, S., & Langrish, T. A. G. (2015). Comparing yields from the extraction of different citrus peels and spray drying of the extract. Advanced Powder Technology, 26(6), 1633–1638.

Xia, W., Fanga, B. B., Zhaob, Q., Jiaob, B., & Zhoua, Z. (2014). Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties. Food Chemistry, 162, 230–238.

Zhuo Zou, Wanpeng Xi, Yan Hu, Chao Nie, Z. Z. (2016). Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits. Food Chemistry, 196, 885–896.



Article Metrics

Abstract view : 75 times
PDF - 22 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.